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Showing posts from 2008

Unpacking the Regulative Principle

A lot of things happen in a typical church service. It starts (and perhaps ends) at a specific time, in a specific place. There are songs, prayers, announcements , sacraments, a sermon, tithes and offerings.  The songs might be in books or on a screen.  Maybe there are musical instruments, or maybe not.  People stand, sit and, in some churches, kneel.  The minister might wear a collar or Geneva gown, or he might not. The elders might sit at the front, or they might sit among the congregation with their families like everyone else. The preacher might ascend into an elevated pulpit to preach, or he might pace back and forth at the front of the room. Does the Regulative Principle have anything to do with these choices? How do we decide what to do? Many of these choices have a typical Apostolic solution, just as they probably have a typical Presbyterian or Anglican solution.  Yet, do we just opt for a given choice because it's the Apostolic way, or are there other reasons.  If Aposto

The Regulative Principle

The expression 'Regulative Principle' may not be a part of our typical theological vocabulary, yet, despite not using the specific expression, it was certainly part of the theology of the early leaders of the Apostolic Church. The Regulative Principle states that only those things which are commanded by God in Scripture are acceptable in our worship.  Thus we don't use candles and incense, as these are not Biblically mandated.  The Regulative Principle of Worship was championed by the Reformed Churches during the Reformation, and thereafter by the Puritans, confessional Presbyterians, Brethren and then Apostolics (& I suspect other British Pentecostals, although our American brethren never seem to have held to it).  The expression has not always been used, but the idea has always been there. In Brethren assemblies, for example, the concept is often referred to as 'New Testament Church Principles'.   The alternative to the Regulative Principle among Protestant

Seeing as it's Boxing Day...

Seeing as it's Boxing Day, perhaps something a wee bit Christmassy might be in order. Anna is someone who probably doesn't get too much press at the average Christmas. The main characters at this time of year tend to be Mary & Joseph, followed by angels, inn-keepers, shepherds, and then by donkeys, cows and sheep. Sometimes wisemen and camels even get thrown into the mix (although here on the continent Epiphany is still known as the Day of the Three Kings).  Anna, however, is a more important character than the assorted obligatory Christmas animals. Unlike the inn-keeper, she's actually mentioned in the Bible; unlike the shepherds, she's actually named.  If we do remember her, it's probably not at Christmas, and she tends to get overshadowed by Simeon (afterall, he did come up with the Nunc Dimitis [Lk 2:29-32] ...). Yet the account of Anna in Luke 2:36-38 bears an important lesson for us today. Anna 'served  God  with fastings and prayers night and day&#

Study Questions: The Resurrection

What is the difference between Christ's resurrection & other people (like Lazarus) who were restored to life in the Bible? Who raised Jesus from the dead? What do we know about Christ's resurrection body? What is the significance of Christ's resurrection?

The Best Books I've Read in 2008 (continued)

Ranking good books from 1-10 is too hard, so, apart from my top 2 picks from last night, the remaining 8 books are in no particular order. Mark Dever, The Gospel and Personal Evangelism (Wheaton:  Crossway, 2007)   I've already written about this one . Donald Macleod, The Person of Christ , Contours of Christian Theology (Downers Grove: IVP, 1998) Excellent contemporary work by a systematic theologian. This is no basic overview, but rather a more advanced text which interacts heavily with opponents of Chalcedonian orthodoxy. Not a starting point for your study of Christology, but brilliant for those who already have a grasp of the basics. Steve Jeffery, Mike Ovey and Andrew Sach, Pierced for Our Transgressions: Rediscovering the Glory of Penal Substitution (Nottingham: IVP, 2007) With all the current attacks on Penal Substitution, this book is necessary (& very worthwhile) reading. John M. Frame, The Doctrine of God (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2002) At nea

The Best Books I've Read (so far) in 2008

As the end of the year is fast approaching, it seems more than a few bloggers have been reflecting on the best books of 2008. I, however, am, as usual, a bit behind the times and haven't read enough books published this year; so I thought I'd be a wee bit more subjective and think about the best books I've read this year, irrespective of date of publication. 1. Michael Horton, A Better Way: Rediscovering the Drama of Christ-Centred Worship (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002) A brilliant and thought-provoking look at worship, founded in a robust Scriptural theology. Horton opposes much that has come to be labelled 'worship' in today's evangelicalism, yet he is not arguing that 'traditional' worship is better. Rather, Horton is seeking 'a better way' (just in case you've forgotten, that's the title of the book). Horton ably dismisses the notion that worship is something sentimental and subjective, or that corporate worship is when we make room f

Sorry for the interruption...

Okay, so I've rather neglected the blog lately, but I hope you'll forgive the break. In the next few days I hope to post a bit about books, a bit about worship and liturgy, and maybe even something about Christmas (although no promises on that one).

Study Questions: The Atonement

Define penal substitution and demonstrate that it is the clear teaching of the Scriptures. What is the significance of imputation for the atonement? How does the Passover relate to Penal Substitution? What is the meaning of propitiation & why is it necessary? Why could God not simply forgive us without Jesus having to die? What is the meaning of Redemption ? Why do we need to be redeemed?

Study Questions: More on the Incarnation

Where & how does the Bible teach the virgin birth? What was the result of the Holy Spirit's overshadowing of Mary? What does impeccability mean? Why is it important? What do we mean by Christ's active righteousness & what does it have to do with our salvation? Why did Christ become incarnate?

Evangelism & Sin

'Man is more lost than he understands and the older evangelicalism believed that the first objective in gospel preaching was to bring men to despair of themselves. To tell men the worst about themselves is not to hinder conversion. On the contrary, the real impediment to conversion is the absence of conviction of sin. The preacher's first duty is to address that fact by awakening the conscience to the meaning of sin, and to sin understood not simply as wrong action requiring forgiveness, but as an evil principle governing man's very heart.' (Iain Murray, Revival and Revivalism , 370)

Two Ways to Live

You may have noticed the large 2 in the circle at the left-hand side of my blog and be wondering what it's all about? Well, it's actually a link to an online presentation of Two Ways To Live , which is a memorable summary of the Gospel. This is a great resource which not only presents the gospel message, but also does so in a way which doesn't assume any proir knowledge of Christian concepts - everything the average non-Christian needs to know is explained (and clearly too). Two Ways To Live is available in a number of formats and several languages (and even a children's version in English). It's published by Matthias Media in Austrailia and distributed in the UK by The Good Book Company . Click on the 2 at the side to see the presentation and find out more. So, if you're looking for tracts, or something to give to non-Christian visitors to church, have a look at Two Ways to Live . It might be just what you're looking for.

Study Questions: Incarnation & Hypostatic Union

It's that time of the week again; time for some more doctrinal study questions! This week we're beginning to look at Christology (& Tenet No. 3). What is the Incarnation? Does the Bible teach that God the Son existed before the Incarnation? Explain. How do we know that Jesus was truly human? What is Docetism & why is it such a big problem? What is Apollinarianism & why does it cause problems for the doctrine of salvation? What is the Hypostatic Union? How do the heresies of Nestorianism & Eutychianism help us define the Hypostatic Union? Is Christ still incarnate? Why is this important?

Study Questions: Sin

Voila; some study questions to help you revise a bit of hamartiology (the doctrine of sin). Each week I'm going to post a set of questions covering part of one of the Tenets. This week it's the first part of the second Tenet, 'The utter depravity of human nature'. I'm writing the questions for someone in my assembly, but hope they might be useful to other people as well. Have a read through them; see if you can answer them. They might serve to jog your memory; they might send you looking for answers. As I said, they're study questions, so they're not designed to be too difficult. There are no trick questions here; just some good revision. What is sin? How did man become sinful? What are the effects of Adam’s sin on all mankind? What is imputation and what does it have to do with sin? What is utter depravity? What are the implications of utter depravity for our salvation? What are the consequences of sin? Explain the three types of death .

Theologia Crucis

Theologia Crucis or Theology of the Cross means looking to the Cross as the centre of all Christian theology & life. Martin Luther contrasted the Theology of the Cross with Theologies of Glory . According to theologies of glory, man can reach God's righteousness or revelation himself. This doesn't mean that a theology of glory necessarily denies Christ's atoning work at the Cross; however a theology of glory will look to Christ's work as something that helps man on his way. An example of this could be in seeing the gospel simply as the way to become a Christian, and then looking to other things in order to make progress in the Christian life. According to the Theology of the Cross, on the other hand, it is only through the gospel that we can be sanctified. Becoming a Christian and living as a Christian both rest on God's grace at the Cross. The theologian of the Cross knows that God reveals Himself most graciously & clearly, not through reason, nor even

Breaking of Bread

Apostolics traditionally meet each Lord's Day morning to break bread. In many assemblies we still call the Sunday morning meeting 'the Breaking of Bread', reflecting the fact that, at least originally, the sacrament was not simply one thing that was done among many others, but rather the very purpose of the meeting. Acts 20:7 tells us that 'on the first day of the week ... the disciples came together to break bread'. The Lord's Supper was the purpose of their meeting, not just an extra slotted in between singing and sermon. At the breaking of bread we 'proclaim the Lord's death'; we proclaim the gospel. When the sacrament is at the heart of our worship, our meeting is centred on the gospel. So, on the morning of the Resurrection we turn our attention to the Cross. Cross and Resurrection together form the framework of our corporate worship. The Gospel is at the centre of everything. That's the theory; do we put it into practice?

What is Justification?

(From J.B. Clyne, Asked & Answered: A Catechism of Apostolic Priciples ) What is justification? Justification is that act of God's grace which imputes to the sinner the righteousness of Christ, whereby he is accepted as righteous in God's sight (Rom. 4:5-8; 5:1).

What is Justification? An Apostolic Answer

On God's side of this matter all the work necessary to make both our justification and our sanctification effective and complete has already been done by Christ (Rom 3:28). Both are given, and given only, to the believer who accepts the work of Christ on his behalf (Gal. 2:16; Acts 26:15, 18). Justification. To "justify" in the Scriptural sense is not to make a man righteous because of his own actions, but to reckon to him a Righteousness worked out by another for him. The one so justified is regarded as if he had never sinned. To use the Scripture expression, Righteousness is imputed to him (Rom. 4:6). No man can be justified before God by his own works (Rom. 3: 20). Those who trust in Christ are justified by His Blood - His Blood being His Life given when He died on the Cross (Lev. 17:11; Col. 1:20; Rom. 3:21, 22, 26; 5:9). The righteousness reckoned to the believer is the righteousness of the life of Christ Himself as Son of God (11 Cor. 5:2 1), so perfect and co

The Gospel Mystery of Sanctification

We like to do things. It's probably the same the world over, but here in the west certainly Christians like to do things. We know that we are saved by God's grace in Christ and not by our own works; but once we are saved we want to do something. This is seen in the attitude we sometimes take to body ministry; we try to find a job for everyone to do! Sometimes finding a ' ministry ' for every member of the church seems to become an end in itself, as if the church, and Christians, primarily existed to do . In case you're wondering, that is not the purpose of the Church (nor of Christians). The Bible teaches that Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for her, that He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word, that He might present her to Himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but that she should be holy and without blemish. ( Eph 5:25-27) So according to the Bible, its Christ who does the doing.

Warning from History Re. Novelties

Just incase you're questioning the value of studying Systematic Theology (or Church History for that matter)... But it is truly laughable to hear doctrines established and taught by the greatest divines for so many centuries, now condemned as execrable, by those, who never studied divinity in their lives, nor never [sic.] read any system of theology whatever. (Devereux Jarratt, cited in Iain Murray, Revival and Revivalism [Carlisle: Banner of Truth, 1994], 84)

Youth and Age!

These last few days various things have been making me think about age. Carl Trueman has written a provocative article about growing up (or, rather, not growing up) which merits reading. After having read Dr Trueman's piece, I worked through a newspaper article about young male graduates shirking responsibility with one of my English classes (leading to an interesting discussion on the role of marriage in giving men a sense of responsibility). That afternoon a parcel arrived in the post containing Thomas Boston's The Art of Manfishing . Boston wrote this book when he was only 22 years old and it is still in print today, over 200 years later. J.I. Packer describes it as 'a spiritual masterpiece' (Boston, The Art of Manfishing [ Fearn , Ross-shire: Christian Focus, 1998], 8). John Calvin published the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion at the age of 27. Boston and Calvin prove that youth does not necessarily imply irresponsibility and immat

Some excellent advice for writers of worship songs

To Christ the Lord let every tongue Its noblest tribute bring When He’s the subject of the song Who can refuse to sing? Survey the beauties of His face And on His glories dwell Think of the wonder of His grace And all His triumphs tell These words were written by Sammuel Stennet in the 18 th Century. In fact they were the original first part of the hymn we know today as 'Majestic Sweetness sits enthroned' (if anyone still has a Redemption Hymnal, it's No. 191). Even though the words are 200 years old, Stennet's advice is just as true today. Our worship should focus on the person and work of Christ - HIS glory, HIS grace, and HIS triumphs. 'When HE's the subject of the song, who can refuse to sing?'

More Doctrinal Wordle!

While we're at it, how about the statement of faith of Continental Theological Seminary!

Doctrinal Wordle!

Voila - The Fundamentals of the Apostolic Church wordled!

Apostles Today & Sola Scriptura - Conclusion

So, if Acts 6:4, prayer and the ministry of the Word, is the blueprint for apostolic ministry, that must relate to the various aspects of the apostles' task. As we're thinking here about apostleship in terms of Sola Scriptura, let's have a brief look at some of the ways in which the ministry of the Word is seen in some different parts of the apostles' ministry. The ministry of the Word, of course, refers most directly to biblical teaching. Right from the begining of the Church we see the importance of the teaching ministry of the apostles: the Christians 'continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine' (Acts 2:42). But the importance of the Word is also seen in other aspects of the apostles' ministry. Here are just a few examples. One of the responsibilities of the apostles in Scripture is the appointment of elders. In Acts 14:23 we learn that it was the apostles Paul and Barnabas who 'appointed elders in every church'. The context of prayer an

Evangelism Essential Reading

Mark Dever's book, The Gospel and Personal Evangelism ( Wheaton : Crossway , 2007) is one of the best books on evangelism I've ever come across. Of course this is only to be expected; anyone who's familiar with Dever and 9 Marks will know of his commitment to Biblical Understanding of the Good News , Biblical Understanding of Conversion , and Biblical Understanding of Evangelism , all of which come together here to make for some excellent, Biblical and very practical teaching. The chapter titles give a very clear overview of the contents: 1. Why Don't We Evangelize? 2. What is the Gospel? 3. Who Should Evangelize? 4. How Should We Evangelize? 5. What Isn't Evangelism? 6. What Should We Do After We Evangelize? 7. Why Should We Evangelize? (I like chapter titles that actually give you an idea of what your going to get, and in this book each chapter does indeed 'do exactly what it says on the tin'.) I think the chapter on 'What isn&#

Apostles are fallible, Scripture is not! (or Apostles Today and Sola Scriptura - Part 4)

Unlike the Bible, which is inerrant (no mistakes), apostles can make mistakes. Peter had to be corrected by Paul ( Gal 2:11 ). At one stage Paul and Barnabas parted company over a disagreement ( Acts 15:36-41 ). If the words of an apostle were the very words of God, these two incidents would not have been possible. The fact that they happened warns us that apostles are not perfect; they can (and do) make mistakes. Only the Bible is inerrant, thus only the Bible can be our ultimate authority.

Apostles Today & Sola Scriptura - Part 3

Timothy is a model of an apostle who submitted to the authority of the Word of God. Paul is an apostle who taught other apostles their need to submit to the authority of Scripture. Yet, this was not some new idea that Paul came up with for future generations. The supreme authority of Scripture for the apostles pre -dates even Paul's conversion. After Jesus ascended, the apostles dealt with Judas' defection. 'Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples ... and said, "Men and brethren, this Scripture had to be fulfilled..."' (Acts 1:15-16). Peter immediately pointed to Scripture! It was on the basis of Scripture that Judas was replaced. On the day of Pentecost, Peter did the same thing - he based what he was saying on Scripture, not on his own authority as an apostle. From the very beginning , the apostles knew that Scripture was the ultimate authority. In Acts 6:4 the apostles defined their primary responsibilities : 'we will give ourselves continually

Apostles Today and Sola Scriptura - Part 2

So, how can we both maintain that Scripture is our ultimate authority and yet also believe that there are apostles in the church today. Evidently the answer has to do with our understanding of what an apostle is. If we believe that both are true, then we cannot agree with Grudem that the words of an apostle are the very words of God. In fact, we can see this in the New Testament itself, where we find mention of about 23 apostles. Yet only a handful of these were involved in the writing of Scripture. In fact, we do not have a record of a single word said by a number of Biblical apostles! If we did suddenly find a genuine letter written by one of the biblical apostles, we would not add it to the New Testament (this would be a denial of both God's preservation of Scripture and of the sufficiency of Scripture). That means we could not consider such a letter to contain the very words of God (or else it would be Scripture). Paul wrote more than two letters to the Corinthians, yet onl

Apostles today & Sola Scriptura?

Can one believe that there are apostles today and still believe in Sola Scriptura? What does one have to do with the other? Increasingly cessationists (those who don't believe that the supernatural gifts of the Spirit continue today) are pointing to the existence of contemporary apostles as being incompatible with the doctrine of Sola Scriptura. Apostles, they reason, have some sort of authority independant of and above that of the Bible. If this idea of apostleship were true, it would indeed be a denial of Sola Scriptura, for it would make the apostles the ultimate authority for the Church rather than the Bible. This would almost tend towards the Roman Catholic idea of the Magisterium (the bishops being seen as the successors of the apostles). Wayne Grudem argues that the words of the apostles were 'the very words of God' ( The Gift of Prophecy in the New Testament and Today [Eastbourne: Kingsway, 2000], 30). He goes on to write that 'to disbelieve or disobey an

Pentecostals and Scripture

In my last post I mentioned the threat to Sola Scriptura that comes from not putting our theology into practice. Our theology tells us that prophecy must be judged by Scripture, Scripture being the ultimate authority. Not only is Sola Scriptura threatened when this isn't carried out in practice, but the Church (and individual Christians) can greatly suffer. However, this is not the only threat to Sola Scriptura facing Pentecostals at the moment. As Keith Warrington has recently pointed out (relying on research carried out by William Kay) 'in a survey of UK Pentecostal leaders, reported in 2004 ... nearly 40% disagreed with inerrancy, accepting that there were errors in the Bible.' (Warrington, Pentecostal Theology , 184). Now it must be admitted that nearly all of these leaders believed that the Bible was 'infallible'. Thus they weren't saying that the Bible was completely unreliable, they were just limiting the areas in which they considered it to be complete

Read about the Reformation

Since it is Reformation Day today (the 491st anniversary of the day on which Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the church door), and given that I have just finished reading an excellent book on the Reformation, I thought it might be a good idea to have a Reformation Day Reformation book review! So here we go. Stephen J. Nichols certainly knows how to make history interesting . His book The Reformation: How a Monk and a Mallet Changed the World serves as a fun introduction to the Reformation and it's key personalities which is easily read whether or not you like history. I have to admit, I love history, so for me it is a book which has left me wanting to find out more about the lives of people like Ulrich Zwingli and Jeanne of Navarre. However, if you don't normally like reading about history, don't be put off: the chapters are short enough that they won't lose your attention and the writing style is much more engaging than the average history book. As Nichols him

Pentecostals and Sola Scriptura

Last year I taught a series of studies at church on our identity. One of these studies focused on the 5 Solas of the Reformation. On the way out of the faculty office one day I happened to mention this to another lecturer (our resident expert on the Reformation). He asked me a very pertinent question: Do Pentecostals really believe in the 5 Solas ? Now, I think everyone will accept that Pentecostals believe in Sola Fide (by faith alone), Sola Gratia (by grace alone), Solus Christus (Christ alone) and Soli Deo Gloria (to the glory of God alone. The question is when we come to Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone). First off, let me make clear, I hold firmly to all 5 Solas . In fact, for me Sola Scriptura is of the essence of Pentecostalism, or at least of the form of Pentecostalism which I grew up in. If you had asked me in my youth what the distinctive feature of my church was, I wouldn't have given you an answer about the Baptism in the Holy Spirit or Spiritual Gifts;

Singing Christ in the Old Testament

Not all the blood of beasts On Jewish altars slain Could give the guilty conscience peace Or wash away the stain. But Christ, the heav’nly Lamb, Takes all our sins away; A sacrifice of nobler name And richer blood than they. My faith would lay her hand On that dear head of Thine, While, like a penitent, I stand, And there confess my sin. My soul looks back to see The burdens Thou didst bear When hanging on the curs├Ęd tree, And knows her guilt was there. Believing, we rejoice To see the curse remove; We bless the Lamb with cheerful voice, And sing His bleeding love. Isaac Watts Hebrews 10:4

Some helpful books on the Old Testament

The Old Testament can sometimes seem difficult to Christians. I'm lecturing on Genesis at the moment and am getting tons of questions on stories all the students know well. You see that's the thing, we know the stories, but sometimes we don't understand how they fit together or what they've got to do with us today. Anyway, I thought I'd take this opportunity to recommend a few books which help with just that problem. First up is Graeme Goldsworthy , Gospel and Kingdom: A Christian Interpretation of the Old Testament (Paternoster,1981), which I recommend to all my Old Testament students. It's a short book and not at all difficult to read, but incredibly helpful for seeing what it really means to interpret the Old Testament as a Christian. Goldsworthy doesn't want to see us exchange a Christ centred interpretation for the simple moralisms that we can come up with if we neglect to look for Christ in all of Scripture. It's also a great introduction

Please Read This Book!

For some excellent teaching that integrates theology with our Christian lives, you should read this book. C.J. Mahaney , The Cross Centered Life: Keeping the Gospel the Main Thing (Sisters, Oregon: Multnomah , 2002). At less than 90 pages it's an easy read. (Perfect for a Lord's Day afternoon!). Not only is the author great at integrating biblical understanding with a burning heart, but it'll help you to do the same. The Anderlecht presbytery gave a copy of this book as a gift to everyone in our assembly for some summer reading. As the pastor told the church the day we gave them out 'Jonathan says this is the best book he's ever read.' He wasn't misquoting me - it really is that good. After reading it during the summer many members of the church thought it was so good that they've been giving them to friends and looking to buy replacements. The only problem is that now our assembly appears to have managed to buy up the entire stock of the French trans

The Doctor agrees!

What timing! Adrian Warnock has posted a quotation today from Martyn Lloyd-Jones (aka 'the Doctor'). Lloyd-Jones clearly agrees with Thomas Rees (and me!). What foolish creatures we are! Many of us are not interested in doctrine at all; we are lazy Christians who do not read, do not think, and do not try to delve into the mysteries. We have had a certain experience and we desire no more. Others of us, deploring such an attitude, say that, because the Bible is full of doctrine, we must study it and grapple with it and possess it. So we become absorbed in our interest in doctrine and stop at that. The result is that, as regards this question of the love of Christ, we are no further on than the others because we have made doctrine an end and a terminus. In this way the devil trips and traps us and robs us of our heritage. If your knowledge of the Scriptures and of the doctrines of the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ has not brought you to this knowledge of the love of Christ, yo

Integrating Theology and Life

Following on from my last post, I'd like to think about this division that is sometimes created between a 'burning heart' and sound doctrine. This is, in fact, what Thomas Rees was warning about. He looked at the example where theology was ignored in favour of feeling, yet that is not the only way we can separate between the two. Sometimes it's possible to know all the right theology, and even mentally agree to it, but still have this division in real life. Sometimes we act based on feeling or experience, rather than on the basis of the sound doctrine we know. This creates just as much a division between the 'burning heart' and theology as does ignoring doctrine altogether. This can be the reality in any number of ways; e.g. when we know the truth of justification by grace thanks to Christ's death for our sins on the Cross, yet allow ourselves to wallow in feelings of guilt and unworthiness - of course we're guilty and unworthy, but as believers we shoul

Theology for Burning Hearts

'If the Church is to advance and conquor it is by the living Word of the living God. There is a sad lack among God's people of a knowledge of His Word. The prophet of old said: 'My people is destroyed for lack of knowledge.' We are afraid that it is true of God's people today; they are defeated because they know not the Word of God. Today the land is flooded with false doctrines, and errors mixed with truth are readily accepted because they do not know the Word of God. Comparatively few attend our Bible Classes; they enjoy sitting down and singing some light jazzy choruses much better. They prefer a testimony meeting to a meeting where the Word of God, with its wonderful doctrines, is expounded. They would rather have their emotions stirred than to have their understanding enlightened. Blessed be His name! Jesus stirs our emotions; for they on the Emmaus Road said: 'Did not our hearts burn within us!' But that is not all. Thank God for a burning hear